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Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) Blood Test

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Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) Blood Test


Significance for CMP Test


The comprehensive metabolic panel blood test is a screening test with a task of 14 blood tests including sodium, potassium, CO2, albumin, globulin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, calcium, chloride, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) tests. CMP is also known as chemical screening test which evaluates physical condition of patients on the basis of above mentioned 14 blood tests. CMP’s current procedural terminology code is 80053.

Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) Blood Test

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Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) Blood Test

Significance for CMP Test

The comprehensive metabolic panel blood test is a screening test with a task of 14 blood tests including sodium, potassium, CO2, albumin, globulin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, calcium, chloride, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) tests. CMP is also known as chemical screening test which evaluates physical condition of patients on the basis of above mentioned 14 blood tests. CMP’s current procedural terminology code is 80053.

Alternate names for CMP test

  • Chemical Screening Test
  • CMP Test
  • CMP (14) Blood Test
  • Sequential Multiple Analysis – Computer
  • Metabolic Panel- Comprehensive
  • Metabolic Panel 20
  • Chem-20

 

Comprehensive metabolic panel test is a task of 14 blood tests which is an elaborated form of basic metabolic panel test that performs 08 blood tests. Basic metabolic panel test does not include liver tests. This test is done in order to monitor patient’s metabolism in body.

 

Brief summary for comprehensive metabolic panel test

The comprehensive metabolic panel blood test is a set of 14 blood tests that helps into monitor and manage electrolytes, diabetes level, liver and kidney functioning, proteins, cholesterol, calcium, sodium, potassium level in the blood.

  • Sodium: Sodium test is done to estimate patient’s sodium level in the blood and to determine kidney functioning. Sodium is needed for liver and kidney functioning and for electrolyte balance.

 

  • Potassium: Potassium test is done to estimate patient’s potassium level in the blood and to determine electrolyte balance. Potassium is needed for heart, nerves and muscle functioning.
  • CO2: Helps to determine the carbonic acid in the blood. Proper functioning of liver and kidney balances the level of carbon dioxide in the blood.

 

  • Albumin: Albumin test is done to determine range of albumin protein in blood. Helps in to check liver and kidney related conditions.

 

  • Globulin: Globulin protein test is performed in order to check its level in blood. Lower range than normal range may cause disorders like bowel related problems. Elevated range than normal range may cause disorders like immune deficiency, chronic related problems.
  • Creatinine: Creatinine test is done to estimate patient’s creatinine level in the blood and to determine kidney functioning. Creatinine is needed for liver and kidney functioning.

 

  • Blood Urea Nitrogen: BUN test helps in to check nitrogen level in the blood causing because of urea waste. This helps in to determine liver and kidney related problems.
  • Total Protein: Total protein (TP) is performed to evaluate liver and kidney functioning of the human body. TP is very essential for human body. It evaluates nutritional level in the body.

 

  • Calcium: Calcium test is done to estimate patient’s calcium level in the blood and to determine functioning of body muscles. Calcium is needed for functioning of bones, muscles, nerves and brain.
  • Chloride: Chloride test is done to estimate patient’s chloride level in the blood and to determine acid base balance. Chloride is needed to monitor PH value and blood pressure of the body.

 

  • Glucose: Glucose test is done to estimate patient’s glucose level in the blood. Glucose helps in determining pre-diabetes and diabetes.
  • Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT): ALT test is done to monitor liver related problems.

 

  • Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP): Bone related and liver related conditions are determined by ALP test.
  • Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST): AST is performed to determine liver and heart muscle related damages.

 

The comprehensive metabolic panel test is helpful in determining liver and kidney related disorders. It also helps in determining unknown diseases at early stage in the body that are undetectable and does not show any signs and symptoms. CMP test can detect those early symptoms and can prevent them from damaging body tissues and cells. Early detection can help you save time, money and most importantly keeps you healthy, fit and fine.

These days most of the people are suffering from Type-2 diabetes which is the most common form of diabetes. Diabetes is a condition where your sugar/glucose level raises higher than normal sugar/glucose level. Junk foods and fast foods are the bad food choices that are responsible for obesity where diabetes develops. This can be controlled by vitamins and minerals rich diet along with regular exercises.

 Liver is the vital and largest organ of the human body. It is responsible for important functions in the body that are vital for life such as metabolism process, hormones, processing nutrients from diet and clotting. It helps in production of proteins and acts as filter by removing toxins from the blood. Liver disorder may lead to liver dysfunction. Reasons like alcohol consumption, specific medications, over the counter medications, herbal supplements may advance to liver disorder. Hepatitis which shows increase in liver enzymes can be diagnosed by this liver test. There are two main liver enzymes that are situated in liver and they are AST and ALT. When damage is done to liver enzymes ALT and AST are broke down into blood flow.

Clinical studies show that one out of ten people have kidney related disorder. Kidney plays equally important role as that of liver. Its main function is to remove wastes from blood in the human body and to regulate water fluids in blood. Functioning of kidneys can be affected by disorders like diabetes and hypertension. So, proper functioning of kidney is important for regulation of water fluids and removal of wastes from the body in the form of urine. Kidney failure can lead to death.

Nerve, heart, and muscle use electrolytes to carry electrical impulses to muscles, heart, nerves and brain. Disorders like puking, diarrhoea and hormonal diseases can indicate electrolyte imbalances in the body. Potassium concentration is related to functioning of heart, muscles, brain and nerves.

 Regular visits to clinics and physical examination may help us from time and money wastage. This can also prevent us from having severe medical conditions. It’s better to know our health conditions and to monitor them before it’s too late.

Purpose

CMP test is performed to evaluate electrolyte imbalances, liver and kidney related disorders and to keep a track of liver and kidney related side effects. Other than this it’s also helpful in evaluating presence and deficiency of sodium, potassium, calcium, protein level in blood.

The CMP test helps evaluate:

Potassium, sodium, chloride are very essential for proper functioning of human body. They act as electrolytes and help in regulate acid-base balance. Elevated or lower level than normal range may indicate disorders like liver and kidney disorder, nutritional problems. Some conditions such as heart related problems, dehydration and kidney problems may imply abnormal levels.

Glucose is the simplest form of sugar in human body metabolism. It is used as the primary source for energy building and helps in metabolic processes. Glucose levels higher than normal range may imply the presence of pre-diabetic or diabetic conditions. Glucose levels lower than normal range may imply the presence of hypoglycaemia.

Albumin and globulin are two important types of proteins that are situated in liver and are essential to the human body. They are present in abundance in blood. Abnormal range may refer to liver and kidney related problems. Calcium is very important to human body. It helps in muscle contraction and hormone releases. Increased or reduced calcium levels may create a hormone imbalance in the body. Abnormal levels may refer to liver and kidney problems and bones related problems.

Elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine level causes liver dysfunctioning. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine helps in removing waste products from the blood by kidneys.

Alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase are liver enzymes and rise in these ALP, ALT, AST enzymes lead to liver disorders.

Test Preparation

Usually, blood tests do not require special preparations. Some of them require few hours of fasting. This comprehensive metabolic panel blood test requires 08 to 12 hours fasting.

How the test is done

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Expert healthcare professionals and nurses perform this blood test.
  • A blood sample is needed.
  • The surface is cleaned with anti septic.
  • Then the needle is inserted into vein and blood is drawn.
  • Pressure is created at injection site to stop the bleeding.
  • The area is cleaned with piece of cotton.

 

 

What you expect

  • Patient may feel bit dizzy and fatigue after blood test.
  • Mild bruises may occur.
  • Patient may feel little pain or quick pinch while inserting and removing needle into arm.

 

Description

A comprehensive metabolic panel blood test is a set of 14 blood tests that quantifies the level of potassium, sodium, calcium, chloride, CO2 in blood and helps to determine liver and kidney related disorders. Also helps in to determine level of enzymes and electrolytes for proper functioning of body.

CMP test measures fourteen different blood tests to monitor health condition of a patient. It estimates the blood levels of calcium, protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, CO2, nitrogen, sodium, potassium, creatinine, ALT, AST and ALP.

Every blood test has its own significance and their abnormal value signifies the presence of some or the other disorder like chronic, liver or kidney problems. Proteins are the building blocks of the human body. Glucose is a simplest form of sugar which is a primary source of energy required to human body. Chlorine is essential for acid base imbalance in the body. Nitrogen test helps in removal of urea waste from blood which is very harmful to the body. They help keep our body working normally. These tests help in proper functioning of liver, kidney, brain, muscles and heart. Similarly, liver acts as a filter for removal of toxins and protein building. It also helps in processing nutrients from food intake to body for proper functioning of organs. Kidney being the largest and heaviest organ of the body plays a crucial role in removing wastes from the blood and also helps in regulating water fluids in the body.
Physician or healthcare provider may perform this test to detect any severe medical condition or as a routine health check up.

Sodium (Na) in Blood

Sodium is an electrolyte and mineral with chemical formula Na. Sodium test is done to estimate sodium level in blood. The normal value for sodium in blood plasma is 136-145 mM. Sodium test helps to retain level of water in blood. Presence of sodium is around 85% in the body. Most of the Na is situated in blood and lymph fluid. Small amounts of Adrenal glands produce hormones named aldosterone which partly determines the level of sodium in the blood. It helps kidneys to hold required sodium in the body and passes unnecessary sodium through urine. Sweat causes sodium lost through skin of the body.

Commonly found resource for sodium is NaCl. It is an important ingredient in cooking. Most of the foods and medicines have sodium ions.

Raise in sodium ions in the food intake may raise high blood pressure (B.P.). Patients having high B.P. are not advised to consume food with high concentration of sodium. It may be harmful to patients and can elevate their sodium levels causing disorders such as heart related problems, heart attack, and kidney related damages.
Decreased sodium level causes hyponatremia (sodium level is below 130 mM).Heavy sweating, diarrhoea and puking causes decrease in sodium level in human body. Some specific medications cause reduction in sodium level.

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Potassium (K) in Blood

A potassium test is an electrolyte and a mineral with chemical symbol K This test is done to evaluate potassium level in blood. This helps to keep track of acid base balance and to keep the fluid level in the blood. It is also helpful in proper functioning of muscles and nerves.

Level of potassium usually changes with the level of sodium. Level of potassium is inversely proportional to the level of sodium. When the sodium levels rise, potassium levels decrease, and when sodium levels decrease, potassium levels rise. Potassium levels are also affected by aldosterone hormones produced by adrenal glands.

Kidney functioning can alter potassium level in the body. Also some of the clinical treatments that are used to destroy tumour cells or cancer cells can change potassium level in the body. Conditions like puking, dehydration and specific medications can affect this [K] level.

Lots of food and medications are responsible for abnormal level of potassium. Definitely it’s very essential for the functioning of human body but abnormalities may lead to various disorders. Potatoes, bananas, orange juice, squash; figs are rich in potassium mineral.

Anything that is too high or low may cause problems. Symptoms for abnormal [K] levels are low B.P., puking, hormonal problems, paralysis, fatigue, dizziness, muscle pain, diarrhoea.

 

Calcium (Ca) in Blood

The chemical symbol for calcium is Ca. This test is done to determine the level of calcium in blood. Ca is the most common mineral which is very essential for the human body. Calcium is needed for building and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones in the body.

Usually, there is an equilibrium maintained between calcium in the blood and calcium in the body. When there is a shortage in the calcium level in blood, bones transfer there calcium ions to blood to maintain a normal range. And the level of calcium is maintained in the blood. The excess calcium is passed out through urine or stool from the body.
Calcium can be obtained from food rich in calcium. It also relies on intestine absorption of calcium and vitamin D, presence of phosphate in the body and presence of certain hormones and estrogens such as parathyroid hormone and calcitonin.

Vitamin D and hormones help maintain the level of calcium in the body. There is equilibrium between blood levels of phosphate and calcium levels in fact they are inversely proportional to each other. As calcium level in blood raises, phosphate level decreases and vice versa as calcium level in blood lowers, phosphate level increases.,

Foods that are rich in calcium are milk, almonds, eggs, wheat, rice, brown sugar, vegetables, fruits, fish, flour, beef and peas. There are no specific symptoms or signs during increase or decrease in the level of calcium in the blood.

Chloride (Cl)

Chlorine is an important mineral and electrolyte important for human body. Chemical symbol for chlorine is Cl. Chlorine helps in to balance the flow of water inside and outside of the cells. It also helps in to monitor PH value and B.P. (blood pressure).
Chlorine in the body is absorbed through common ingredient for cooking i.e. common salt. Foods that are rich in chlorine are salts, pastes, spreads, dehydrated broths, cooked legumes, lentils, whole grains, flours and their products, sauces, salad dressings, cheese, cured meats, canned foods, cocoa, cured meats and seaweed.
Some of the common symptoms for chlorine deficiency are muscle cramps, appetite loss, dehydration, lethargy, heavy sweating and burns.

Chloride can also be measured in skin sweat to test for cystic fibrosis.

Carbon Dioxide (Bicarbonate)

Carbon dioxide test quantifies the level of bicarbonate in blood. This is chemically denoted by CO2. CO2 helps in controlling PH value from becoming too acidic or basic in nature. Your kidneys and lungs balance the levels of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and carbonic acid in the blood.

CO2 is a gaseous waste. Increase in CO2 may be harmful for human body. This is released through stool or urine from the body.

In blood, 90% of carbon is present in bicarbonate form.

Blood Glucose

Glucose test quantifies the level of glucose serum present in the blood. Glucose is the simplest form of sugar which is used as the primary source of energy.
It is main resource of energy.

 When we consume food, usually sugar level raises. This causes pancreas to release insulin to level up the level of increased glucose in blood. Increased level can be harmful and over the time can damage your eyes, kidneys and nerves.

There are several different types of blood glucose tests such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), 2-hour postprandial blood sugar, random blood sugar (RBS), oral glucose tolerance test and glycohemoglobin A1c. These tests are different in nature. The preparation, purpose and results are entirely different from one another. Physician orders these tests depending upon the patient and its condition.

 

Blood Urea Nitrogen

A blood urea nitrogen blood test estimates the level of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea. When protein breaks down it creates urea which is harmful to the body. Urea is made with in the liver and is released through stool and urine.

A BUN test is performed to detect the proper functioning of kidney organs. Liver disorders, liver damages and pregnancy can relate to lowering of blood urea nitrogen level. Heart problems, dehydration, can raise your BUN level.

If your kidney is working efficiently the BUN level will be maintained but if your kidney is not able to excrete urea wastes from blood then BUN level increases. It may lead to severe health issues especially kidney dysfunction.

Creatinine and Creatinine Clearance

Creatinine .blood test measures the level of creatinine in your blood. This test helps in to detect functioning of liver and kidneys. Creatinine is formed from the breaking down of creatine during metabolism process. This test helps to removes the waste products from blood through urine or stool. Creatinine is tested both in blood as well as urine. Increase in this level may lead to harmful effects to the body.

 

Improper functioning of kidney indicates higher creatinine level in blood and lower creatinine level in urine.

Three types of creatinine tests are blood creatinine level, creatinine clearance test and blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio.

 

Total Serum Protein

 

Protein is a set of twenty two amino acids where fourteen amino acids are present in human body and other eight are consumed through food intake. A total protein (TP) test evaluates the level of protein in the blood in human body. Along with that it also estimates the value of other two important proteins albumin and globulin. Total protein (TP) is performed to evaluate liver and kidney functioning of the body. TP is very essential for human body. It also evaluates nutritional level in the body.

There are five important proteins available in body on the basis of:

  • structure
  • hormone
  • storage
  • enzymes
  • immunoglobulins

Proteins are made in liver so as albumin and globulin. There are other proteins such as fibrous proteins, globular proteins, hemoproteins  and many more but albumin and globulin are important. Albumin is the only protein available in abundance in the body. It helps in preventing the leakage of blood from blood leakage. . Albumin is vital for healing purpose and tissue growth. It carries medicines and other important substances throughout the body through blood. Globulins are also made in liver. Five different globulin proteins are alpha, alpha 1, alpha 2, gamma and beta proteins. Some are made by liver and some are made by immune system. Globulin protein test is performed in order to check its level in blood. Lower range than normal range may cause disorders like bowel related problems. Higher range than normal range may cause disorders like immune deficiency, chronic related problems.  

 

A test TP reports separate values for total protein, albumin, and globulin.

 

Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)

An alkaline phosphatase test quantifies the level of alkaline phosphatase enzymes in the blood. Enzyme alkaline phosphatase is produced in the liver and bones. Bone related and liver related conditions are determined by alkaline phosphatase test.

Disorders that raise alkaline phosphatase level are bone diseases, deficiency in vitamin D, hyperparathyroidism, bone growth and liver dysfunction.

If the ALP level is high, more tests may be done to find the cause.

Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)

An aspartate amino transferase is performed to determine liver and heart muscle related damages. AST test also quantifies the level of aspartate aminotransferase enzymes in blood. Aminotransferase is found in RBC’s, liver, kidney, heart, muscle tissues, and pancreas. Aspartate aminotransferase is also known as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT).

 

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)

An alanine aminotransferase test quantifies the amount of this enzyme in the blood. Alanine aminotransferase test is done to monitor liver related problems. ALT is also found in the liver, but also in lower proportions in the kidneys, muscles, and heart. Alanine aminotransferase is also known as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT).

 

 

Results

Results for CMP are same as that of BMP results.

 

Normal Results

 

Normal range for BUN: 7 to 20 mg/dL

Normal range for CO2 (carbon dioxide): 20 to 29 mmol/L

Normal range for Creatinine: 0.8 to 1.4 mg/dL

Normal range for Glucose: 64 to 128 mg/dL

Normal range for Serum chloride: 101 to 111 mmol/L

Normal range for Serum potassium: 3.7 to 5.2 mEq/L

Normal range for Serum sodium: 136 to 144 mEq/L

Normal range for Bilirubin: 0.2 to 1.9 mg/dL

Normal range for Alkaline Phosphatase: 44 to 147 IU/L

Normal range for Aspartate Aminotransferase: 10 to 34 IU/L

Normal range for Alanine Aminotransferase: 8 to 37 IU/L

Normal range for Serum albumin: 3.9 to 5.0 g/dL

Normal range for Serum protein: 6.3 to 7.9 g/dL

What Abnormal Results Mean

 

Abnormal result for BUN:

High blood urea levels could indicate kidney failure, heart disease or in some cases of ulcers in the digestive system. Lower blood urea levels could be a result of malnutrition or depressed liver function, especially due to alcohol use.

Abnormal result for CO2 (carbon dioxide):

Kidney failure, heart disease

Abnormal result for Creatinine:

High levels of creatinine in blood are directly related to decrease in kidney function.

Abnormal result for Glucose:

Higher levels could indicate diabetes mellitus, adrenal cortical hyperactivity and hyperthyroidism. Low levels could indicate insulinoma, hypopituitarism and adrenal cortical insufficiency

Abnormal result for Serum chloride:

Anomalies in the nervous, cardiovascular and skeletal systems

Abnormal result for Serum potassium:

An increase or decrease in electrolytes could cause severe fluid-electrolyte imbalances which could affect osmotic pressures of the cells and cause a number of disorders

Abnormal result for Serum sodium:

An increase or decrease in electrolytes could cause severe fluid-electrolyte imbalances which could affect osmotic pressures of the cells and cause a number of disorders

Abnormal result for Alkaline Phosphatase:

High levels of alkaline phosphatase in the blood indicate liver damage and blockage of bile ducts.

Abnormal result for Aspartate Aminotransferase:

High levels of AST indicate acute liver disease.

Abnormal result for Alanine Aminotransferase:

High levels indicate liver damage and even heart failure.

Abnormal result for Serum albumin:

In the case of high albumin levels it could be due to malnutrition or dehydration

Abnormal result for Serum protein:

Low levels of proteins in the blood indicate liver and heart disease. Higher than normal level indicates blood diseases such as leukemia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/comprehensive-metabolic-panel-topic-overview

http://adam.about.net/encyclopedia/CHEM-7.htm

http://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/bmp/tab/test

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comprehensive_metabolic_panel

 

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